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Putusnya Pernikahan dan Akibatnya

PENDAHULUAN

Pernikahan dalam Islam disebut sebagia janji yang sakral/ janji yang sangat berat. Karenanya, pernikahan harus dijaga dan dipertahankan sedemikian rupa. Namun demikian, Islam juga memahami bahwa manusia juga terkadang menghadai persoalan yang demikian rumit sehingga tak mungkin lagi mempertahankan pernikahan. Atau jika tetap dipertahan justru membawa dampak yang negatif. Dalam kondisi mendesak inilah Islam membolehkan kepada sepasang suami istri untuk memutuskan ikatan pernikahan. Namun demikian, putusnya pernikahan ini harus mengikuti aturan-aturan tertentu yang sudah ditetapkan dalam Islam.

PENGERTIAN

Secara bahasa, thalaq berasal dari bahasa Arab yang diambil dari kata thalaqa-yuthliqu-thalaqan yang berarti melepaskan dan meninggalkan. Kata “thalaq” juga semakna dengan kata “furqah” yang berarti bercerai, lawan dari berkumpul.

Menurut Kompilasi Hukum Islam (KHI), thalaq adalah ikrar suami di hadapan Pengadilan Agama yang menjadi salah satu sebab putusnya perkawinan Talak dalam arti umum berarti segala macam bentuk perceraian baik yang dijatuhkan oleh suami, yang ditetapkan oleh hakim, maupun perceraian yang jatuh dengan sendirinya atau perceraian karena meninggalnya salah seorang dari suami atau isteri.

Inilah yang biasa dipahami oleh masyarakat kita. Jadi apapun sebab perceraiannya semuanya disebut dengan thalaq. Namun dalam arti khusus, dalam pengertian teknis hukum, thalak adalah istilah yang digunakan untuk perceraian yang inisiasi penyebabnya dari pihak suami dengan sebab tertentu, sedangkan untuk yang lainnya menggunakan istilah lain (akan dijelaskan pada bagian selanjutnya).

HUKUM CERAI

Hukum cerai (talak) adalah makruh. Cerai dibolehkan Allah, tapi sekaligus dibenci. Rasulullah SAW bersabda:

اَبْغَضَ ْالحَلاَلِ إِلَى الّلهُ الطَّلاَقُ (رواه ابوداودوابن ماجه والحاكم)

Artinya: Sesuatu perbuatan halal yang paling dibenci oleh Allah adalah talak/perceraian” (HR. Abu Dawud, Ibnu Majah, dan Al-Hakim).

Berdasarkan hadits tersebut, menunjukkan bahwa perceraian merupakan alternative terakhir (pintu darurat) yang dapat dilalui oleh suami istri bila ikatan perkawinan (rumah tangga) tidak dapat dipertahankan keutuhan dan kelanjutanya.

Dengan demikian, orang yang keluarganya tak menghadapi masalah, tapi kemudian mereka bersepakat untuk cerai karena masing-masing sudah bosan (ingin ganti pasangan) maka itu hukumnya haram. Cerai dengan alasan seperti ini pasti tak akan dikabulkan oleh pengadilan dan kalau sampai dikabulkan, berarti pengadilan/hakim berdosa.

Hukum makruh ini tentunya ditujukan pada pisahnya hubungan perkawinan karena sebab selain meninggal. Untuk sebab ini tentu tak berlaku hukum ini karena memang merupakan perpisahan yang tak bisa dihindarkan dan tak dikehendaki.

PENYEBAB THALAQ DAN AKIBATNYA

Putusnya pernikahan (thalaq) bisa disebabkan oleh beberapa hal. Perbedaan penyebab ini menimbulkan istilah serta akibat yang berbeda-beda pula bagi kedua pasangan yang bersangkutan. Beberapa penyebab sekaligus penggunaan istilah tersebut adalah sebagai berikut.

Berkenaan Dengan Bisa dan Tidaknya untuk Rujuk

  1. Talak (thalaq)

Talak adalah perceraian yang inisiasi penyebabnya adalah suami. Suamilah yang mengajukan cerai. Perceraian seperti ini dalam istilah teknis hukum disebut dengan talak. Inilah arti khusus talak sebagaimana disinggung di atas.

  • Akibatnya

Akibat talak dengan sebab ini terbagai ke dalam 2 (dua) macam: (1) talak raj’i, yaitu talak kesatu dan kedua. Untuk kasus ini suami istri bisa rujuk kembali, (2) talak bain kubra. Untuk kasus ini suami istri tidak bisa rujuk kembali kecuali mantan istri sudah menikah dengan orang lain, sudah berhubungan badan, dan bercerai dengan suami keduanya (muhalil).

  1. Khulu’

Khulu’adalah perceraian yang diinisiasi oleh pihak istri. Cerai ini juga disebut dengan cerai gugat. Jadi istrilah yang mengajukan gugatan perceraian. Perceraian dengan sebab ini juga disebut talak bain sughra.

  • Akibatnya

Akibat talak dengan sebab ini membuat suami istri tidak bisa rujuk dengan cara biasa. Jika mau rujuk mereka harus menikah kembali yang tentunya harus dilengkapi dengansyarat rukun nikah.

  1. Fasakh

Fasakh adalah perceraian yang dijatuhkan oleh pengadilan. Artinya inisiasi perceraian adalah pihak pengadilan. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kasus tertentu. Misalnya pernikahan tidak memenuhi syarat rukunnya atau karena sebab lain dimana kedua belah pihak tidak ada yang menginisiasi perceraian, namun keadaan sebenarnya menuntut adanya perceraian. Perceraian seperti ini juga termasuk cerai bain sughra.

  • Akibatnya

Akibat talak dengan sebab ini sama seperti khulu’, yaitu suami istri tidak bisa rujuk dengan cara biasa. Jika mau rujuk mereka harus menikah kembali yang tentunya harus dilengkapi dengan syarat rukun nikah.

  1. Li’aan

Li’an adalah perceraian yang disebabkan oleh kasus tuduhan zina. Suami menuduh istri berzina, atau sebaliknya. Berdasarkan kasus ini maka mengadu ke pengadilan untuk bercerai.

  • Akibatnya

Akibat talak dengan sebab ini membuat suami istri tidak bisa rujuk selama-laman, baik dengan rujuk biasa maupun menikah kembali.

Berkenaan dengan Masa Iddah

Masa iddah adalah masa tunggu bagi istri untuk menikah kembali, sekaligus masa tenggang antara kedua belah pihak untuk rujuk kembali. waktu tunggu dihitung sejak jatuhnya putusan Pengadilan yang mempunyai kekuatan hukum tetap. Sedangkan bagi perkawinan yang putus karena kematian, tenggang waktu tunggu dihitung sejak kematian suami.

  1. Apabila perkawinan putus karena perceraian waktu tunggu bagi yang masih haid ditetapkan 3 (tiga) kali suci sekurang-kurangnya 90 (sembilan puluh) hari, dan bagi yang tidak haid ditetapkan 90 (sembilan puluh) hari.
  2. Apabila perkawinan putus karena perceraian sedang janda tersebut dalam keadaan hamil, waktu tunggu ditetapkan sampai melahirkan.
  3. Apabila perkawinan putus karena kematian, sedang janda tersebut dalam keadaan hamil, waktu tunggu ditetapkan sampai melahirkan.
  4. Apabila perkawinan putus karena kematian, waktu tunggu ditetapkan 130 (seratus tiga puluh) hari.
  5. Tidak ada waktu tunggu bagi janda yang putus perkawinan karena perceraian sedang antara janda tersebut dengan bekas suaminya belum pernah terjadi hubungan kelamin.

Berkenaan Kewajiban Suami

KHI (Kompilasi Hukum Islam) pasal 149 menyatakan bahwa akibat putusnya perkawinan karena talak, maka mantan suami wajib:

  1. memberikan mut`ah (mut’ah adalah pemberian/nafkah suami kepada istri karena adanya talak) yang layak kepada bekas isterinya, baik berupa uang atau benda, kecuali bekas isteri tersebut qobla al dukhul (belum hubungan badan saat cerai).
  2. memberi nafkah, maskan dan kiswah kepada bekas isteri selama dalam iddah, kecuali bekas isteri telah dijatuhi talak ba’in atau nusyur dan dalam keadaan tidak hamil.
  3. memberikan biaya hadhanan untuk anak-anaknya yang belum mencapai umur 21 tahun.[]

About Mr Tohirin

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