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Kaidah dan Paradigma Fikih Ibadah

Salam sukses! Teman-teman sekalian, materi ibadah ini termasuk materi yang paling penting dalam perkuliahan kita. Karena ibadah merupakan kewajiban setiap muslim. Shalat, ibadah utama seorang muslim, kata Nabi adalah tiang agama.

Shalat adalah identitas utama seorang muslim. Kartu Tanda Pengenal (KTP)-nya seorang muslim adalah shalat. Inilah KTP yang asli. Bukan KTP (Kartu Tanda Penduduk) yang di dalamnya ada tulisan: AGAMA: ISLAM. Bukan Islam KTP. Selanjutnya, saya yakin teman-teman sudah menjalankan ibadah.

Tapi apakah ibadah kita selama ini sudah sesuai tuntunan Rasulullah. Maksud saya begini, selama ini kita memang telah beribadah, sudah melakukan shalat, tapi apakah kita pernah mengetahui dalil-dalil al-Quran dan hadisnya? Yah, saya tahu. Kebanyakan kita hanya ikut-ikutan saja.

Terkadang malah belajar shalat dari buku yang kita beli di atas bis kota. Nah, di sinilah sekarang kita akan membuat perbedaan. Dalam perkuliahan ini kita akan mengetahui bagaimana shalat berikut dalil-dalilnya. Setelah kita mengetahui nanti, barangkali teman-teman ada yang terkaget-kaget: lho, kok shalat yang diajarkan di UHAMKA berbeda dengan apa yang saya jalani selama ini?

Jika demikian yang terjadi maka teman-teman tinggal menilai, mana sebenarnya yang seperti apa yang diajarkan Rasulullah. Sebenarnya kalau dibilang berbeda mungkin hanya beberapa saja, untuk meluruskan apa yang selama ini kurang sesuai dengan tuntunan Rasulullah.

Nah, materi ibadah, terutama shalat ini nanti akan diuji komprehensif-kan, bahkan menentuka kelulusan teman-teman. Meskipun demikian, kita beribadah, shalat dan lain-lainnya sebenarnya bukan karena ujian komprehensif ya? Tapi memang karena ingin menjadi hamba Allah yang taat (muttaqin).

KAIDAH IBADAH
Pada hakikatnya, seluruh aktivitas seorang muslim di dunia (harus) bernilai ibadah. Semua aktivitas dijalankan dengan niat dan dalam rangka mengabdi kepada Allah SWT. Ibadah ini terbagi ke dalam dua jenis:

Pertama, ibadah murni (ibadah mahdhah).  Ibadah mahdhah adalah ibadah berhubungan langsung dengan Allah, yaitu ibadah yang berkaitan dengan ritual penyembahan. Ibadah ini sering disebut juga dengan hablun minallah (hubungan dengan Allah). Contohnya adala shalat, haji, dan puasa. Ibadah jenis ini seluruh petunjuk pelaksanaannya harus mengikuti seperti apa yang diajarkan Allah dan Rasul-Nya.

Kedua, ibadah tidak murni (ghairu mahdhah). Ibadah ghairu mahdah adalah ibadah yang tidak berhubungan langsung dengan Allah. Ibadah ini juga sering disebut dengan hablun minannas (hubungan antar manusia) Contohnya shadaqah, menolong orang lain, dan seterusnya. Dalam kontks ini, semua aktivitas seorang muslim di dunia termasuk ibadah.

MEDIA KOMUNIKASI DENGAN ALLAH

Seringkali orang masih salah paham dan menganggap bahwa beribadah itu sebagai kewajiban yang mengekang dirinya. Orang merasa kalau ibadah itu, terutama ibadah mahdhah, bukan kebutuhannya, tapi butuhnya Allah sehingga ia merasa terpaksa dalam menjalankan ibadah kepada Allah.

Padahal tidak demikian. Manusialah sebenarnya yang butuh dengan ibadah. Manusia adalah makhluk yang lemah, makhluk yang membutuhkan obyek untuk menyandarkan diri, membutuhkan pertolongan dari pihak lain (dependent). Inilah watak dasar manusia.

Karena itulah Allah menyediakan waktu untuk manusia. Allah “pasang badan” untuk dijadikan sandaran manusia, menjadi tempat berkomunikasi, tempat mengadu, tempat bergantung, dan tempat mmeohon pertolongan. Lima waktu dalam sehari Allah selalu siap siaga untuk menerima kedatangan manusia. Siap menerima setiap hamba yang menghadap kepada-Nya.

Bahkan Allah masih menyiapkan waktu ekstra. Kata Allah: jika memang engkau punya kebutuhan khusus, ada yang sangat penting dan berharap Aku memprioritaskanmu, maka datanglah kepada-Ku pada waktu-waktu khusus. Datanglah pada tengah malam atau sepertiga terakhir malam dengan menjalankan shalat tahajud. Jadi shalat sesungguhnya adalah media komunikasi dengan Allah. Manusialah yang butuh datang kepada-Nya, bukan sebaliknya.

Jika memang shalat itu butuhnya manusia, mengapa diwajibkan? Benar sekali. Shalat memang diwajibkan. Kewajiban berarti pula paksaan. Penjelasannya begini: manusia itu kalau dibiarkan semaunya sendiri seringkali justru merugikan diri sendiri.

Orangtua yang baik pasti tak akan pernah membiarkan anaknya bertindak semaunya. Orangtua yang baik pasti akan mengatur dan mengarahkan anaknya. Apa jadinya jika seorang anak dibiarkan tanp didik orangtuanya? Saya yakin, kebanyakan anak menjadi anak nakal, tersesat, yang semuanya akan merugikan anak itu sendiri. Kesimpulannya, manusia atas dasar nafsunya seringkali justru melakukan hal-hal yang merugikan dirinya.

Karena itulah dia harus diatur. Untuk beberapa hal malah harus dipaksa. Tapi semua itu untuk kebaikan dirinya. Teman-teman yang sedang kuliah pasti banyak dipaksa-paksa kan? Dipaksa mengerjakan tugas ini lah, tugas itu lah. Emang enak mengerjakan tugas terus? Dipaksa kan? Tapi semua itu kita tahu bahwa manfaatnya untuk kita sendiri. Allah juga demikian. Dia mewajibkan shalat dan yang lainnya hakikatnya untuk kebaikan manusia.

CARA UNTUK MERAWAT KOMPONEN RUHANI MANUSIA
Komponen manusia itu terdiri dari fisik/jasmani dan psikologis/ruhani. Kalau mau didetailkan lagi, manusia terdiri dari 3 komponen utama: jasad, akal, dan hati. Ketiga komponen ini harus dirawat dengan baik. Kita tahu cara merawat jasad/tubuh kita.

Istirahat yang cukup, makan teratur yang bergizi, dan olahraga. Dengan menjalankan ketiga hal ini tubuh kita menjadi bugar. Tapi bagaimanakah cara merawat akal? bagaimana cara merawat hati? Padahal akal dan hati merupakan kesatuan yang membuat manusia dinamakan manusia.

Kalau akal dan hati sakit, tubuh pun akan terkena dampaknya. Coba perhatikan orang yang baru saja gila. Secara fisik dia masih bugar kan? Tapi akalnya konslet. Apa dia ada harganya di mata orang lain. Pilih mana kambing gila sama orang gila? Boelh jadi fisik bugar, tapi bagaimana kalau hatinya merana? Makan tidak enak, tidur tidak nyenyak. Akhirnya fisik sakit juga kan?

Nah, padaha kata Nabi komponen utama manusia bukan yang fisik. Bukan tubuhnya. Tapi justru komponen dalam; akal dan hatinya. Teman-teman punya motor, kan? Mana yang terutama harus dirawat? Mesin atau body-nya? Boleh jadi body kinclong, tapi kalau mesinnya rusak apa motor bisa jalan? Laku kalau dijual?

Jadi akal dan hati itu mesin manusia. Kalau mau dikerucutkan lagi, mesin terinti manusia adalah hati. Begitu kata Nabi. Jadi sebenarnya hatilah yang terutama harus dirawat. Lantas bagaimana cara merawat hati? Apakah kalau kita mandi sehari tiga kali, makan yang bervitamin, dan olah raga hati kita menjadi sehat?

Tentu bukan itu. Itu semua untuk fisik, untuk body. Cara merawat hati salah satunya adalah dengan beribadah, dengan shalat. Jadi shalat sekali lagi bukan butuhnya Allah. Tapi kebutuhan manusia untuk merawat bagian terinti dalam dirinya. Semoga kita sadar.[]

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