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Hukum Nikah dengan Non Muslim

PENDAHULUAN

Dunia modern telah membuat manusia dapat berinteraksi satu sama lain tanpa sekat ruang dan waktu. Pergaulan menjadi sedemikian kompleks yang mengharuskan adanya sikap toleran dan tenggang rasa satu sama lain.

Hak asasi manusia (human right) dan demokratisasi menjadi dasar utama pergaulan orang-orang modern. Saking toleran dan demokratisnya sampai-sampai terkadang melanggar apa yang telah diatur agama.

Pernikahan salah satunya, dianggap sebagai hubungan keduniaan semata. Dengan alasan HAM dan demokrasi kemudian mereka menghalalkan pernikahan beda agama.

HUKUM NIKAH BEDA AGAMA

Sebagian masyarakat, atas dasar HAM dan demokrasi, sebagaimana telah saya singgung di atas, menghalalkan nikah beda agama. Ini dapat kita maklumi, lantara pijakan utamanya bukanlah agama.

Tapi bagi yang pijakannya agama, ada juga yang masih berpendapat bahwa nikah beda agama itu halal. Hal ini didasarkan atas firman Allah SWT sebagai berikut:

الْيَوْمَ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ وَطَعَامُ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حِلٌّ لَكُمْ وَطَعَامُكُمْ حِلٌّ لَهُمْ وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ إِذَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ مُحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ وَلا مُتَّخِذِي أَخْدَانٍ وَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالإيمَانِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ فِي الآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

Artinya: Pada hari Ini dihalalkan bagimu yang baik-baik.makanan (sembelihan) orang-orang yang diberi Al Kitab itu halal bagimu, dan makanan kamu halal (pula) bagi mereka. (dan dihalalkan mangawini) wanita yang menjaga kehormatan diantara wanita-wanita yang beriman dan wanita-wanita yang menjaga kehormatan di antara orang-orang yang diberi Al Kitab sebelum kamu, bila kamu telah membayar mas kawin mereka dengan maksud menikahinya, tidak dengan maksud berzina dan tidak (pula) menjadikannya gundik-gundik. barangsiapa yang kafir sesudah beriman (tidak menerima hukum-hukum Islam) Maka hapuslah amalannya dan ia di hari kiamat termasuk orang-orang merugi.(QS. Al-Maidah : 5).

Perhatikan pada kalimat yang saya garisbawahi. Di sana memang disebutkan bahwa mengawini wanita ahli kitab (Yahudi dan Nasrani) dihalalkan. Berdasarkan hal inilah kemudian ada yang berpendapat bahwa mengawini mereka memang diperbolehkan, dengan syarat:

  1. Wanita Ahlul Kitab tersebut tidak pernah melakukan perbuatan maksiat, seperti zina dan sejenisnya.
  2. Hanya laki-laki muslim yang boleh menikahi wanita Ahlul Kitab, sedangkan wanita muslim tidak boleh menikahi laki-laki beda agama.

Namun sesungguhnya diperbolehkannya itu adalah dalam rangka agar si suami nantinya dapat membimbing istri masuk Islam. Oleh karena itulah yang dipebolehkan adalah laki-laki mengawini perempuan non muslim, bukan sebaliknya. Sebab laki-laki berperan sebagai pemimpin sehingga diharapkan dapat membawa istrinya masuk Islam.

Iniilah yang dinyatkan oleh Buya Hamka: Bagi laki-laki muslim yang kuat agamanya, sehingga dia dapat membimbing isterinya dan keluarga isterinya tersebut ke jalan yang benar atau masuk Islam, maka perkawinan seperti itu tidak saja boleh tetapi bahkan merupakan “perkawinan yang terpuji dalam Islam.

Dengan demikian, tampaknya perkawinannya juga dilangsungkan dengan tatacara Islam. Jika dilakukan dengan cara Yahudi atau Nashrani tentu menjadi bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam.

Namun dalam konteks kekinian sudah tidak relevan. Hukum formal tidak menerima perkawinan semacam itu. Sebab perkawinan harus tegas dilaksanakan di bawah aturan agama yang mana, yang tentunya menuntut kedua belah pihak mempunyai kesamaan iman/agama. Menjadi problem juga ketika ternyata si istri umpanya tetap bertahan pada agama selama berumah tangga.

Karena itulah para ulama menegaskan bahwa pernikahan dengan non muslim HARAM hukumnya.  Hal ini didasarkanpada firman Allah SWT:

وَلاَ تَنكِحُواْ الْمُشْرِكَاتِ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنَّ وَلأَمَةٌ مُّؤْمِنَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن مُّشْرِكَةٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ وَلاَ تُنكِحُواْ الْمُشِرِكِينَ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنُواْ وَلَعَبْدٌ مُّؤْمِنٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن مُّشْرِكٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكُمْ أُوْلَـئِكَ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ وَاللّهُ يَدْعُوَ إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَالْمَغْفِرَةِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَيُبَيِّنُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ

Artinya: “Dan janganlah kamu menikahi wanita-wanita musyrik, sebelum mereka beriman. Sesungguhnya wanita budak yang mukmin lebih baik dari wanita musyrik, walaupun dia menarik hatimu. Dan janganlah kamu menikahkan orang-orang musyrik (dengan wanita-wanita mukmin) sebelum mereka beriman. Sesungguhnya budak yang mukmin lebih baik dari orang musyrik, walaupun dia menarik hatimu. Mereka mengajak ke neraka, sedang Allah mengajak ke surga dan ampunan dengan izin-Nya. Dan Allah menerangkan ayat-ayat-Nya (perintah-perintah-Nya) kepada manusia supaya mereka mengambil pelajaran.” (QS. Al-Baqarah [2]: 221).

Ditegaskan pada ayat di atas bahwa menikahi orang musyrik adalah haram. Adapun Ahli Kitab juga masuk dalam kategori musyrik, didasarkan pada firman Allah SWT:

Artinya: “Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang kafir yakni ahli Kitab dan orang-orang yang musyrik (akan masuk) ke neraka jahannam; mereka kekal di dalamnya. mereka itu adalah seburuk-buruk makhluk.”  (QS. Al-Bayyinah: 6).

Mayoritas ulama dari 4 mahzhab, Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI), Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), Muhammadiyah dan lainnya telah bersepakat bahwa menikahi pria atau wanita non muslim hukumnya haram. Dalam KHI diatur bahwa bagi calon suami dan istri tidak terdapat halangan  perkawinan, dan diantara halangan perkawinan tersebut dituangkan dalam pasal 40 dimana seorang pria dilarang melangsungkan perkawinan dengan wanita yang tidak beragama Islam.

Kemudian pada pasal 44 disebutkan bahwa seorang wanita Islam dilarang melangsungkan perkawinan dengan seorang pria yang tidak beragama Islam. Pasal 60 ayat 2 juga mensyaratkan bahwa suami istri harus sepadan (sekufuk) dalam hal agama. Jika masing-masing berbeda agama, maka dapat dilakukan pencegahan pernikahan.[]

 

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